With Robert Laurent and William Zorach,
direct carving enters
into the story of modern sculpture
in the United States.
Direct carving ―
in which the sculptors themselves carve
stone or wood
with mallet and chisel ―
must be recognized
as Line something
more than just a technique.
Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle
as well :
(5) that the medium has
certain qualities of beauty
with which sculptors must bring
their own aesthetic sensibilities
the shape or veining [v 배열]
in a piece of stone or wood
perhaps even dictates,
not only the ultimate form,
but even the subject matter.
The technique of direct carving was a break
with the nineteenth-century tradition
in (10) which the making of a clay model
was considered the creative act
and the work was then turned over
to studio assistants
to be cast in plaster or bronze
or carved in marble.
Neoclassical sculptors seldom held
a mallet or chisel [m 나무망치] [c 끌]
in their own hands,
readily conceding [r 쉽사리] [c 인정하다]
that the assistants they employed were far better
than they were
at carving the finished marble.
(15) With the turn-of-the-century Crafts movement
and the discovery of nontraditional sources of inspiration,
such as wooden African figures and masks,
a new urge for hands-on,
personal execution of art
and an interaction
with the medium.
Even as early as the 1880's and 1890's,
nonconformist European artists were attempting
By the second decade of the twentieth century,
Americans ― Laurent(20) and Zorach most notably ―
had adopted it
as their primary means of working.
Born in France,
Robert Laurent(1890-1970) was a prodigy
who received his education
he was sent
as an apprentice to an art dealer,
and in the years that followed
the birth of Cubism,
discovered primitive art,
the techniques of woodcarving
from a frame maker.
(25) Back in New York City by 1910,
such as The Priestess,
with African, pre-Columbian, and South Pacific art.
Taking a walnut plank, [p 널빤지]
the sculptor carved
the expressive, stylized design.
It is one of the earliest examples
of direct carving in American sculpture.
The plank's form dictated
the rigidly frontal view [r 굳게]
and the low relief. [r 안도감]
Even its irregular shape must (30) have appealed
as a break
with a long-standing tradition
that required a sculptor
within a perfect rectangle or square.
1. The word 'medium' in line 5
could be used
to refer to
2. What is one of the fundamental principles
of direct carving?
(A) A sculptor must work
with talented assistants.
(B) The subject of a sculpture should be derived
from classical stories.
(C) The material is an important element
in a sculpture.
(D) Designing a sculpture is a more creative activity
than carving it.
3. The word 'dictates' in line 8 is closest
in meaning to
4. How does direct carving differ
from the nineteenth-century tradition of sculpture?
(A) Sculptors are personally involved
in the carving of a piece.
(B) Sculptors find their inspiration
in neoclassical sources.
(C) Sculptors have replaced the mallet and chisel
with other tools.
(D) Sculptors receive
more formal training.
5.The word 'witnessed' in line 23 is closest
6. Where did Robert Laurent learn
7. The phrase 'a break with' in line 30 is closest
8. The piece titled The Priestess has
all of the following characteristics
*[학습방법]: 1.끊어읽기: 의미어구에 따라 끊어쓰고 의미어구 번호표시를 한 뒤 읽기2.끊어듣기: 끊어읽기한 내용을 보면서 교재를 듣고 2번씩 따라 말하기 3.끊어쓰기: 끊어읽기한 내용 옆에 /표시하고 의미를 연결해서 바꿔서 쓰기 4.끊어말하기: 끊어읽기한 내용을 듣고 따라한 뒤 의미를 연결해서 바꿔서 말하기(2번)
*[의미어구 번호표시]: 1주어구, 2술보어구, 3목적어구, 4부사구, 5분사구, 6관계사구